What are Lithographs?
Lithographic Press in Elisha Noyce – The Boy’s Book of Industrial Information, 1858
Whether you’re a first-time collector or a passionate print enthusiast, many people experience some level of confusion regarding a real lithograph and how different it is from other types of prints on the market.
If you’ve ever found yourself wondering, “What is a lithograph?” you are not alone. Understanding the key characteristics that make this printmaking process different from others is essential for those considering collecting lithographs.
Who invented lithography?
The practice of lithography dates back to the 18th century when a Bavarian playwright in Germany named, Alois Senefelder accidentally learned that he could duplicate his scripts by writing them on slabs of limestone with greasy crayons and printing them using rolled-on ink. He quickly realized lithographs could be created in almost unlimited quantities due to this material’s ability to repeatedly retain crayon marks applies to its surface.
Soon, lithography became a popular practice used by artists and artisans. The evolution of the lithographic plate has been ongoing, and today there exists a variety of types of lithography, from fine art to offset printing.
Alois Senefelder (1771-1834), Lithographic Portrait, 1818
What is lithography?
The word “lithograph” is derived from two ancient Greek words: “lithos” meaning “stones,” and “graphien” meaning “to write.” The principle on which lithography is based is the antagonism of grease and water. The process of drawing or laying down a design or transferring it on a specially prepared stone or other suitable surfaces.
How is a lithograph created?
To create a lithograph, original works of art are printed and reproduced, most often using flat stones or metal plates. The artist makes the lithograph by drawing an image directly onto the printing element using materials like litho crayons or specialized greasy pencils.
When the artist is satisfied with the drawing on the stone, the surface is treated with a chemical etch. The treatment bonds the greasy drawing materials to the surface. With this process, the blank areas will attract moisture to the plate and repel the lithographic ink, while the areas that are drawn on will hold the ink. Water is then wiped onto the unpainted areas to help prevent the ink from smearing.
Once the image is inked, paper is laid over the stone, and it is covered with a tympan, a layer of packing that is typically placed between the plate and paper to help equalize the pressure. Next, these materials pass through the scraper that is used properly thick enough, as this machine provides enormous pressure.
After the stone passes through the machine, the tympan is removed and the paper is pulled off to reveal a mirror-image of the drawing on the stone. The paper will retain whatever was drawn by the crayon, creating a perfect replica that can be repeated as often as needed.
What is the difference between a lithograph and a print?
If you are unsure whether you are looking at a real lithograph or a particular type of print, it can be helpful to take a closer look with a magnifying glass and an informed eye. Use the following tips to help you determine whether you are looking at a hand-pulled or offset lithograph.
Make sure to use the tips above to verify the seller’s cataloging. If you acquired the lithograph from a reputable art dealer or auction house, it’s most likely an original stone or plate lithograph.
Types of lithograph art
As the technologies of printing continue to become more advanced and reproducing images becomes more streamlined, those who are unfamiliar with printmaking have trouble distinguishing different variations of lithographs.
The original stone lithograph is the oldest and greatest lithography technique. This method is what most people think of when they are referring to a traditional lithograph. Original stone lithographs can also be referred to as hand-pulled lithographs and are hand-drawn on limestone or marble. To incorporate more than one color, multiple stones are used. After each edition is hand-printed, the artist will sign and number each print.
Each addition of original stone lithographs is carefully documented, and imperfect impressions are destroyed. This type of lithograph is unique in that it is hand-made by an artist who draws directly onto a stone or other similar material. These lithographs are typically valued more highly due to their quality and the fact that a lower run of prints is usually made.
An original plate lithograph involves the artist hand drawing the image that is being reproduced onto aluminum plates. These plates are cheaper than the stones used in original stone lithography, and they are easier to transport, making them a popular alternative to stone lithography for original printing.
Lithographic reproductions can be copies of any type of art across any medium. To create a lithographic reproduction, the artist will take a photo of the original piece. Then, a color separation is produced using the photograph and this information is transferred to lithographic plates that are photosensitive. These reproductions are often referred to as posters.
To create the mylar plate lithograph, an artist draws on a mylar sheet, which is a material similar to polyester film or plastic sheet. Once the drawing is completed, the image is transferred onto a photosensitive lithographic plate and printed like an original plate lithograph.
An offset print is any type of lithograph that is created using an offset press. Offset lithography uses a similar tactic as original hand lithography based on oil-and-water repulsion; however, with an offset press, the ink is transferred first to a rubber blanket and then directly applied to either stone or paper. With offset lithographs, the color often varies from the original piece, but this technique has still become quite popular due to its affordability, quality, and speed of production. These pieces are not handcrafted like fine art lithography is, making them a more affordable option.
Joan Miro, Print, Miro lithographs I, 1972
While identifying and acquiring lithographs can seem complex, understanding the history of these pieces and the different types of lithographs available will help collectors know what to look for.